Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a class of apolipoprotein found in the chylomicron and Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) that is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. In peripheral tissues, ApoE is primarily produced by the liver and macrophages, and mediates cholesterol metabolism in an isoform-dependent manner. In the central nervous system, ApoE is mainly […]


Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the process of becoming older. It represents the accumulation of changes in a person over time. In humans, ageing refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. […]


In animals, sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity and inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, and it is more easily reversed via stimuli than the state of hibernation or of being comatose. During sleep, […]


Alzheimer’s disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer’s, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia. It is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms […]

VO2 max

VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption as measured during incremental exercise, most typically on a motorized treadmill. Maximal oxygen consumption reflects the aerobic physical fitness of the individual, and is an important determinant of their endurance capacity during […]


Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember such that a person’s daily functioning is affected. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation. A person’s consciousness is not affected. For the diagnosis […]

muscle mass

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as […]


Cancer , also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include: a […]

blood glucose

The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. With some exceptions, glucose is the primary source of energy for the body’s cells, and blood lipids (in […]


Atorvastatin (INN) , marketed by Pfizer as a calcium salt under the trade name Lipitor, is a member of the drug class known as statins, which are used primarily for lowering blood cholesterol and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease. Like all statins, atorvastatin works by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme found in […]